Gaia and Ares: Climate Change and the Future of War

I have yet to find any respected social scientist who makes a causal connection between air temperature and war.                —Major General Robert H. Scales, USA, Rtd, Scales on War: The Future of America’s Military at Risk (2016) _________________________ Throughout the history of arms, there has always been an important relationship between climate and the waging of wars. Climate differs from weather in that climate refers to long-term weather patterns, while weather describes short-term particularities occurring within the atmosphere. It was Russia’s continental climate with its severe winter, rather than any discrete weather events, which played the key role in…

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